Spondylids of the eastern Pacific Ocean
Currently, spondylids are commercially harvested, principally for its adductor muscle and their ornamented shells, throughout most of their geographical distribution. Althoughmodern fishing of spondylids started around the end of 1970s, most natural populations are overfished and local populations have been depleted in many regions. For this reason, spondylids are listed under threatened status in most of the countries and subjected to special regulations for their harvesting, in particular in Mexico and Ecuador. Given the concern about the declining stocks of natural populations, there have been research-oriented studies to support the eventual development of spondylid aquaculture and stock enhancement initiatives. A summary of the results from the research efforts about members of the Spondylidae from the Eastern Pacific Ocean covering their role for the people of Mesoamerican and Andean cultures, a review of its taxonomy, distribution range, biology and ecology, fisheries management, aquaculture research activities, and conservation efforts is presented in the following sections.